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This paper analyses Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler´s theory about `greed and grievances´ and that `greed´  is the main cause of civil war. In comparison is the Relative Deprivation (RD) theory from Samuel Stouffer and Ted Gurr, that explains that the cause of conflict is when the expectations of individuals does not apply to reality. The relative deprivation theory main argument is that the feeling of injustice, and people being deprived when comparing with other groups, can be cause of conflict.The following will focus on the main aspects which causes civil war, from the above mentioned  theories. Afterwards the theories will be compared based on the case study of Syria. Furthermore, the strengths and weaknesses are analysed on their applicability to Syria, in the critical reflection. The paper concludes with a short summary.   2.Theories2.1 Collier Collier and Hoeffler created an economic model, which predict and analyses civil wars through economic approaches, their assumption is that `greed´ is the cause of conflict. The risk of civil war rises, if the primary commodity export constitute around 33% of GDP, also the male rate in secondary school is under 10% and the growth rate of economy is 1% under the average (in this case it rises by three percentage points).Furthermore, the risk of civil war rises proportionally to the size of population also the dispersion increases the risk of civil war up to 37%. Right after a civil war has ended the chances of the conflict to relapse again is 32% and decreases by 1% every year. They also found out that the common source for financing a rebellion is the extortion of natural resources. Another source can be donations from diasporas, which raises the risk of civil war by 6%. The last main aspect is the subvention from hostile governments, which support the military opposition (Collier and Hoeffler 2004).2.2 Relative Deprivation TheoryThe RD theory is based on Samuel Stouffer work The American soldier from 1949 (Pettigrew 2015). It is developed by Ted Gurr, defines actors as “perception of discrepancy between their value expectations and their value capabilities” (Gurr 2011, p.24). RD is where the expectations exceed achievements or gains (increasing the average of expectations without increasing the average of abilities) (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). It provides a psychological approach to explain how collective dissatisfaction is demonstrated as political violence by providing aggression-frustration mechanism. The major focus of the theory is on conditions where citizens feel their rights are being banned by a ruling authority. Furthermore, it defines how deprivation is born from comparison in people’s mind. However, the amount of frustration, disturbance and aggression rises in accordance with the growth in the gap between expectations and reality (Farooq, Bukhari and Ahmed 2017).3.DiscussionCollier measures the attendance of male in secondary schooling because men are more likely to be recruited by rebel groups. According to the World Bank, the global average of men enrollment in secondary school in 2010 was 62,17% related to Syria the percentage in 2010 was 67,28%, the year before the civil war started (World Bank, 2017). Colliers theory of men enrollment in secondary school does not applies on the civil war in Syria. Collier also argues that the economic growth of a country is one of the main proxies for a conflict breakout. He means that the lower the economy growth is the more likely a conflict is to occur (Collier and Hoeffler 2004). In the case of Syria, this can not be implemented because Syria reached its highest GDP numbers in fifty years right before the outbreak in 2011 (Trading Economics, 2017).Not enough data is to be found on the primary commodity exports to analyse other than the fact that between 2009-2010 it increased and in 2011 it decreased (OEC, 2017).The core effort in Relative deprivation theory is when the people cannot envision a future and reach their maximal potential because of certain rights being forbidden by the government. Furthermore, corruption and injustice between groups of people has also a huge impact on the reasons why the civil war started in Syria (Kilcullen and Rosenblatt 2014). Another main aspect of relative deprivation implemented on the case of Syria is the outbreak of the Arab Spring were people started to compare with neighbouring countries who tried to reach improvements getting rid of the regimes (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). It is consistent with the RD theory, that revolutions are often not led from the oppressor (McGarty 2014). 4. Critical reflection  One critique of Collier is that he based his analysis on three quantitative measurements, which is too narrow (Bensted 2011). For example, relevant grievance indicators such as shortage in freshwater and climate change have been discussed in the case of Syria (Gleick, 2011), which is not taken in account by Collier. Failing crops have forced rural communities to migrate to the cities which have led to higher unemployment rates and social unrest (Gleick 2011). The trust for the political governance in Syria became one of the main reasons for the outbreak of the war (Bhardwaj 2012). Collier gives the role of the political governance and leadership very little consideration which is a critique of his theory (Bensted 2011). A strength from Collier’s theory could be that it is a good risk indicator in which countries that are more likely or not to have a civil war according to numbers. This could possibly help in predicting and preventing future civil wars.Gurrs main focus is on the individual identity, while a critique is that the group identity is more important to understand people’s reference group, sense of collective injustice and political action in a civil war (Gurr 2011). Furthermore, Pettigrew and Walker criticize that Gurr fails to recognize the fraternalistic RD, for example in terms of the measurement it could predict riot better. When political deprivation and opportunity structures of the group occurs it can lead to conflict (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). Also the injustice and justice are not analysed enough in Why Men Rebel. The study shows injustice in comparison with other groups, but that group identity in terms of clan, ethnic, religious and political identities is important to address grievances (Gurr 2011).One positive aspect of the RD is that the patterns of the individuals’ aggression mechanisms and why people rebel (Walker and Pettigrew 2011).Another positive aspect of RD is that the theory focuses not on economic indicators but on the people, their mindset, feelings and actions (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). The theories have similarities, if people or groups have expectations in relation to the greed aspect, due to the numbers of collier’s theory and the value capabilities they cannot reach the expectations which could lead to civil war.5.Conclusion Collier and Hoeffler´s economic theory cannot be implemented on the case of Syria due to findings like the economic growth before the civil war. On the contrary, the relative deprivation theory is more applicable in the case of Syria since human rights violations, oppression, political corruption and social injustice have been some of the major causes.Both theories have strengths and weaknesses. However, by combining both the result would cover the economic, social and psychological aspects of a conflict, give a mechanism to measure the growing intolerance towards inequality between people, regions, social classes and generations, and would also help explaining complicated conflicts in a better way.  This paper analyses Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler´s theory about `greed and grievances´ and that `greed´  is the main cause of civil war. In comparison is the Relative Deprivation (RD) theory from Samuel Stouffer and Ted Gurr, that explains that the cause of conflict is when the expectations of individuals does not apply to reality. The relative deprivation theory main argument is that the feeling of injustice, and people being deprived when comparing with other groups, can be cause of conflict.The following will focus on the main aspects which causes civil war, from the above mentioned  theories. Afterwards the theories will be compared based on the case study of Syria. Furthermore, the strengths and weaknesses are analysed on their applicability to Syria, in the critical reflection. The paper concludes with a short summary.   2.Theories2.1 Collier Collier and Hoeffler created an economic model, which predict and analyses civil wars through economic approaches, their assumption is that `greed´ is the cause of conflict. The risk of civil war rises, if the primary commodity export constitute around 33% of GDP, also the male rate in secondary school is under 10% and the growth rate of economy is 1% under the average (in this case it rises by three percentage points).Furthermore, the risk of civil war rises proportionally to the size of population also the dispersion increases the risk of civil war up to 37%. Right after a civil war has ended the chances of the conflict to relapse again is 32% and decreases by 1% every year. They also found out that the common source for financing a rebellion is the extortion of natural resources. Another source can be donations from diasporas, which raises the risk of civil war by 6%. The last main aspect is the subvention from hostile governments, which support the military opposition (Collier and Hoeffler 2004).2.2 Relative Deprivation TheoryThe RD theory is based on Samuel Stouffer work The American soldier from 1949 (Pettigrew 2015). It is developed by Ted Gurr, defines actors as “perception of discrepancy between their value expectations and their value capabilities” (Gurr 2011, p.24). RD is where the expectations exceed achievements or gains (increasing the average of expectations without increasing the average of abilities) (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). It provides a psychological approach to explain how collective dissatisfaction is demonstrated as political violence by providing aggression-frustration mechanism. The major focus of the theory is on conditions where citizens feel their rights are being banned by a ruling authority. Furthermore, it defines how deprivation is born from comparison in people’s mind. However, the amount of frustration, disturbance and aggression rises in accordance with the growth in the gap between expectations and reality (Farooq, Bukhari and Ahmed 2017).3.DiscussionCollier measures the attendance of male in secondary schooling because men are more likely to be recruited by rebel groups. According to the World Bank, the global average of men enrollment in secondary school in 2010 was 62,17% related to Syria the percentage in 2010 was 67,28%, the year before the civil war started (World Bank, 2017). Colliers theory of men enrollment in secondary school does not applies on the civil war in Syria. Collier also argues that the economic growth of a country is one of the main proxies for a conflict breakout. He means that the lower the economy growth is the more likely a conflict is to occur (Collier and Hoeffler 2004). In the case of Syria, this can not be implemented because Syria reached its highest GDP numbers in fifty years right before the outbreak in 2011 (Trading Economics, 2017).Not enough data is to be found on the primary commodity exports to analyse other than the fact that between 2009-2010 it increased and in 2011 it decreased (OEC, 2017).The core effort in Relative deprivation theory is when the people cannot envision a future and reach their maximal potential because of certain rights being forbidden by the government. Furthermore, corruption and injustice between groups of people has also a huge impact on the reasons why the civil war started in Syria (Kilcullen and Rosenblatt 2014). Another main aspect of relative deprivation implemented on the case of Syria is the outbreak of the Arab Spring were people started to compare with neighbouring countries who tried to reach improvements getting rid of the regimes (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). It is consistent with the RD theory, that revolutions are often not led from the oppressor (McGarty 2014). 4. Critical reflection  One critique of Collier is that he based his analysis on three quantitative measurements, which is too narrow (Bensted 2011). For example, relevant grievance indicators such as shortage in freshwater and climate change have been discussed in the case of Syria (Gleick, 2011), which is not taken in account by Collier. Failing crops have forced rural communities to migrate to the cities which have led to higher unemployment rates and social unrest (Gleick 2011). The trust for the political governance in Syria became one of the main reasons for the outbreak of the war (Bhardwaj 2012). Collier gives the role of the political governance and leadership very little consideration which is a critique of his theory (Bensted 2011). A strength from Collier’s theory could be that it is a good risk indicator in which countries that are more likely or not to have a civil war according to numbers. This could possibly help in predicting and preventing future civil wars.Gurrs main focus is on the individual identity, while a critique is that the group identity is more important to understand people’s reference group, sense of collective injustice and political action in a civil war (Gurr 2011). Furthermore, Pettigrew and Walker criticize that Gurr fails to recognize the fraternalistic RD, for example in terms of the measurement it could predict riot better. When political deprivation and opportunity structures of the group occurs it can lead to conflict (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). Also the injustice and justice are not analysed enough in Why Men Rebel. The study shows injustice in comparison with other groups, but that group identity in terms of clan, ethnic, religious and political identities is important to address grievances (Gurr 2011).One positive aspect of the RD is that the patterns of the individuals’ aggression mechanisms and why people rebel (Walker and Pettigrew 2011).Another positive aspect of RD is that the theory focuses not on economic indicators but on the people, their mindset, feelings and actions (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). The theories have similarities, if people or groups have expectations in relation to the greed aspect, due to the numbers of collier’s theory and the value capabilities they cannot reach the expectations which could lead to civil war.5.Conclusion Collier and Hoeffler´s economic theory cannot be implemented on the case of Syria due to findings like the economic growth before the civil war. On the contrary, the relative deprivation theory is more applicable in the case of Syria since human rights violations, oppression, political corruption and social injustice have been some of the major causes.Both theories have strengths and weaknesses. However, by combining both the result would cover the economic, social and psychological aspects of a conflict, give a mechanism to measure the growing intolerance towards inequality between people, regions, social classes and generations, and would also help explaining complicated conflicts in a better way.  This paper analyses Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler´s theory about `greed and grievances´ and that `greed´  is the main cause of civil war. In comparison is the Relative Deprivation (RD) theory from Samuel Stouffer and Ted Gurr, that explains that the cause of conflict is when the expectations of individuals does not apply to reality. The relative deprivation theory main argument is that the feeling of injustice, and people being deprived when comparing with other groups, can be cause of conflict.The following will focus on the main aspects which causes civil war, from the above mentioned  theories. Afterwards the theories will be compared based on the case study of Syria. Furthermore, the strengths and weaknesses are analysed on their applicability to Syria, in the critical reflection. The paper concludes with a short summary.   2.Theories2.1 Collier Collier and Hoeffler created an economic model, which predict and analyses civil wars through economic approaches, their assumption is that `greed´ is the cause of conflict. The risk of civil war rises, if the primary commodity export constitute around 33% of GDP, also the male rate in secondary school is under 10% and the growth rate of economy is 1% under the average (in this case it rises by three percentage points).Furthermore, the risk of civil war rises proportionally to the size of population also the dispersion increases the risk of civil war up to 37%. Right after a civil war has ended the chances of the conflict to relapse again is 32% and decreases by 1% every year. They also found out that the common source for financing a rebellion is the extortion of natural resources. Another source can be donations from diasporas, which raises the risk of civil war by 6%. The last main aspect is the subvention from hostile governments, which support the military opposition (Collier and Hoeffler 2004).2.2 Relative Deprivation TheoryThe RD theory is based on Samuel Stouffer work The American soldier from 1949 (Pettigrew 2015). It is developed by Ted Gurr, defines actors as “perception of discrepancy between their value expectations and their value capabilities” (Gurr 2011, p.24). RD is where the expectations exceed achievements or gains (increasing the average of expectations without increasing the average of abilities) (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). It provides a psychological approach to explain how collective dissatisfaction is demonstrated as political violence by providing aggression-frustration mechanism. The major focus of the theory is on conditions where citizens feel their rights are being banned by a ruling authority. Furthermore, it defines how deprivation is born from comparison in people’s mind. However, the amount of frustration, disturbance and aggression rises in accordance with the growth in the gap between expectations and reality (Farooq, Bukhari and Ahmed 2017).3.DiscussionCollier measures the attendance of male in secondary schooling because men are more likely to be recruited by rebel groups. According to the World Bank, the global average of men enrollment in secondary school in 2010 was 62,17% related to Syria the percentage in 2010 was 67,28%, the year before the civil war started (World Bank, 2017). Colliers theory of men enrollment in secondary school does not applies on the civil war in Syria. Collier also argues that the economic growth of a country is one of the main proxies for a conflict breakout. He means that the lower the economy growth is the more likely a conflict is to occur (Collier and Hoeffler 2004). In the case of Syria, this can not be implemented because Syria reached its highest GDP numbers in fifty years right before the outbreak in 2011 (Trading Economics, 2017).Not enough data is to be found on the primary commodity exports to analyse other than the fact that between 2009-2010 it increased and in 2011 it decreased (OEC, 2017).The core effort in Relative deprivation theory is when the people cannot envision a future and reach their maximal potential because of certain rights being forbidden by the government. Furthermore, corruption and injustice between groups of people has also a huge impact on the reasons why the civil war started in Syria (Kilcullen and Rosenblatt 2014). Another main aspect of relative deprivation implemented on the case of Syria is the outbreak of the Arab Spring were people started to compare with neighbouring countries who tried to reach improvements getting rid of the regimes (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). It is consistent with the RD theory, that revolutions are often not led from the oppressor (McGarty 2014). 4. Critical reflection  One critique of Collier is that he based his analysis on three quantitative measurements, which is too narrow (Bensted 2011). For example, relevant grievance indicators such as shortage in freshwater and climate change have been discussed in the case of Syria (Gleick, 2011), which is not taken in account by Collier. Failing crops have forced rural communities to migrate to the cities which have led to higher unemployment rates and social unrest (Gleick 2011). The trust for the political governance in Syria became one of the main reasons for the outbreak of the war (Bhardwaj 2012). Collier gives the role of the political governance and leadership very little consideration which is a critique of his theory (Bensted 2011). A strength from Collier’s theory could be that it is a good risk indicator in which countries that are more likely or not to have a civil war according to numbers. This could possibly help in predicting and preventing future civil wars.Gurrs main focus is on the individual identity, while a critique is that the group identity is more important to understand people’s reference group, sense of collective injustice and political action in a civil war (Gurr 2011). Furthermore, Pettigrew and Walker criticize that Gurr fails to recognize the fraternalistic RD, for example in terms of the measurement it could predict riot better. When political deprivation and opportunity structures of the group occurs it can lead to conflict (Walker and Pettigrew 2011). Also the injustice and justice are not analysed enough in Why Men Rebel. The study shows injustice in comparison with other groups, but that group identity in terms of clan, ethnic, religious and political identities is important to address grievances (Gurr 2011).One positive aspect of the RD is that the patterns of the individuals’ aggression mechanisms and why people rebel (Walker and Pettigrew 2011).Another positive aspect of RD is that the theory focuses not on economic indicators but on the people, their mindset, feelings and actions (Farooq, Bukhari, Ahmed, 2017). The theories have similarities, if people or groups have expectations in relation to the greed aspect, due to the numbers of collier’s theory and the value capabilities they cannot reach the expectations which could lead to civil war.5.Conclusion Collier and Hoeffler´s economic theory cannot be implemented on the case of Syria due to findings like the economic growth before the civil war. On the contrary, the relative deprivation theory is more applicable in the case of Syria since human rights violations, oppression, political corruption and social injustice have been some of the major causes.Both theories have strengths and weaknesses. However, by combining both the result would cover the economic, social and psychological aspects of a conflict, give a mechanism to measure the growing intolerance towards inequality between people, regions, social classes and generations, and would also help explaining complicated conflicts in a better way.