RFID Bangladesh digitally. According to BRTA annual

RFID Based Virtual Speed Breakers:
Perspective Bangladesh

 Khandaker Anamul Hoque

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Dept. of ENI

   University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria

Hagenberg, Austria

      E-mail: [email protected]

 

 

Abstract—The
point view of the studies gives regulating the road and transportation system
of Bangladesh digitally. According to BRTA annual accident report of five
years, it can be said speed breakers have a great impact on the road accidents.
The road authority attempts to control the unintended information through
setting speed breakers on the road. This paper gives RFID based totally digital
speed breaker as opposed to the traditional speed breakers. As a way to lower
the development price in addition to car upkeep fee.  It is a smart vehicle controlling system that
will ensure safety either the driver is conscious or not.

Keywords—RFID, speed braker, microcontroller, ECU (Electronic
control unit), fuel injection sysytem, LCD display, road and transpotration
system.

                                                                                                                                                     
I.         
 Introduction

Speed control is
inside the want of the hour due to increased fee of accidents mentioned in our
daily life. Bangladesh is a nation having around 1.5 million mechanized and
could be more than 3 million non-mechanized vehicles. Lately great streets are being built adding velocity to
transportation and recurrence of development of individuals. At the same time
number of street mischances is likewise taking off high. Street mishaps in Bangladesh assert, on a normal, around 4000 lives
and 5000 harms each year. The national loss due to road accident is estimated
around 5000crores every year 1. Under the guidance of the National Road
Safety Council there are some organizations those are researching on the
Reduction of road accidents and casualties. The mentionable organizations are
BRTA, RHD, LGED, MOC and ARI (BUET). According to the research results of the
mentioned organizations a vital way to reduce road accident is to remove
unauthorized speed breakers on highways. This does not mean that the authorized
speed breakers do no longer purpose street accidents. Typically we know speed
breakers are raised segments of asphalt over the movement method for the street
and are around 3 to 4 inches high 2. They are an elongation shape. The
expected motivation behind these conventional speed breakers is to endeavor to
decrease speeds by vertically redirecting the haggle of a vehicle. These speed
breakers not only cause the road accidents but also have a negative impact on
the response time of emergency vehicles. They cause an increase in gasoline
consumption and emissions. Motorists may drive on sidewalks or through yards to
avoid the speed breakers, decreasing the effectiveness of the parts of
vehicles. The key  thought offered by
this paper is to utilize radio recurrence distinguishing proof innovation to
find a speed breaker that terminated physically on the streets. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a rising innovation, radio wave communication between a microchip
and an electronic reader, comprising of of data
gathering, distribution, and management systems that can recognize or filter information for
remote acknowledgement of objects with expanded speed and accuracy. RFID based system can be used instead
of the traditional speed breaker system. Here the system is named as RFID Based
Virtual Speed Breakers. This system could be applied by using
placement of RFID tags on the roadside signboard so that you can pass over the
conventional speed breakers from the roads and highways. The
proposed Virtual speed breakers consist three units. One is transmitting unit,
receiving unit and Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The transmitting unit will be
placed on the roadside signboard and the receiving unit will be placed on the
dash board of the vehicle.  An RFID tag
will be used in the transmitting unit. That will leave an electromagnetic
signal by an antenna. And the receiving unit will be consist of a sensor,
microcontroller and LCD display. RFID sensor collects data and microcontroller
sends sign to ECU and controls the car’s fuel supply machine and break to
preserve a given goal velocity.

                                                                                                                                              
II.        
Previous
Works

RFID tags are mainly
tracking and tracing devices. Some works on road and transportation system and
vehicle controlling system have already been done using RFID technology. Japan
has set-up of the “Free Mobility Assistance System” in view of
universal system innovation including RFID labels, to give data to consistent
development 3. Netherlands has presented installment
cards for public transport 4. Singapore builds up Nationwide Electronic Road
Pricing (ERP) framework to control and oversee activity volume; installment of
street use charges. The ERP is applied to all of Singapore’s 840,000 vehicles
4. RFID primarily based highway toll deduction systems that are now
automatically employed in many countries, just like the Tele-bypass system in
Italy and the auto-bypass system in Norway. Different utilizations incorporate
checking frameworks to keep away from vehicle burglary 5, get to control to
auto stopping or private regions 6, what’s more, inserting of RFID labels in
tags with extraordinarily coded IDs for programmed vehicle recognition and
distinguishing proof 7Situation of RFID tags out
and about paths has been proposed keeping in mind the end goal to give exact
vehicle restriction in passages or downtown territories where GPS situating may
be temperamental 8. RFID tagging of cars is offered as an other
option to movement information accumulation by inductive circles set under the
street surface 9. The data about the activity gathered by a system of RF
readers is then used to direct movement at crossing point or basic focuses in
the city 10.

                                                                                                                                    
III.       
Working Procedure

 

Fig. 1. Road
with traditional speed braker.

The RFID based virtual
speed breaker will have three units (i) transmitting unit and (ii) receiver
unit and (iii) electronic control unit (ECU). The transmitter unit will be
attached with a roadside signboard. The transmitter unit will be consist of an
active RFID tag. That will consume power from the solar rechargeable battery. A
small solar panel will be attached to the roadside signboard. The receiver unit
will be on the vehicle’s dash board. When the vehicle comes into the range of
the RFID tag the reader will get specific signal from the tag. The
microcontroller in the receiver unit will supply a particular signal to the
ECU. The ECU will control the electronic fuel injection system and reduce the
flow of fuel in the engine. There would also be an electro-hydraulic Braking
system in the vehicle that would also be controlled by ECU. So one can reduce
the speed of the automobile as according to needful. While the vehicle will
bypass out the variety of the RFID tag microcontroller would be reset. For
emergency or other condition there remains a reset button in the device that
resets the whole system. When the road is empty or the less speed is not
required then the driver would puss the reset button, and the speed won’t
reduce and the driver will be able to pass the area with his desired speed.

                                                                                                                                  
IV.       
System
Architecture

This RFID primarily based digital speed
breaker consists of 3 units. Transmitting, receiving & ECU (electronic
control unit). The main parts of the complete gadget are – an RFID tag that is
mixed by way of a chip and an antenna, a reader or RFID sensor along with a
microcontroller and another important phase is the database in which the facts
about the tagged item is stored. The fuel system of the engine is operated by a
fuel injector. Here remains the ECU (electronic control unit). The ECU controls
timing and quantity of the gas moving into the injector. The ECU takes input
from the microcontroller and analyzes it. A miles rationalization of the
units are given below.

A.   
Transmitting Unit

A RFID tag is the main part of the
transmitting unit. A chip and an antenna are the components of the tag.  The chip contains information about the speed
limit and the antenna attached to the chip is responsible for transmitting
information. RFID tag of different transmitting range is to be had. The transmitting range can be determined by the following
equation.

                                                                    (1)

Where ? is the wave
length of the RF signaland are respectively the heights of the transmitter
and the receiver. The RFID tag of sure variety ought to be selected as
according to requisite. Using active RFID tags will be better for this system. The
active RFID tag needs an external strength supply. Right here we can use a sun
panel and a rechargeable battery with a view to be charged from the solar
strength. The active tag always sends signals. Whilst a receiver comes into its range it absorbs the signal.

Fig. 3. Block diagram of transmitting unit.

B.    Receiving unit

   The receiving unit consists of a RFID sensor
and a microcontroller. It is mainly attached in the corresponding vehicle.  The signal received from the RFID tag used as
the microcontroller input. The microcontroller decodes the signal. Here the
signal is processed by the microcontroller that goes to the ECU as input.  An LCD display is attached on the dash board
of the vehicle that presentations the corresponding facts. There also remains a
reset button on the dashboard of the vehicle. By which the driver can distil
the whole system when needed.  

Fig. 4. Block diagram of reciving
unit.

C.   
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

   In this unit there will be two parts. One part will control fuel flow of
the engine and another part will control the braking system. There would be a
microcontroller in the ECU. The input data is analysed according to the microcontroller
program fed and the output is produced to operate the electronic fuel control
system and the Electro-Hydraulic Braking System. 

1)        
Electronic fuel control system:

The fuel system provides the
injector with the fuel at consistent price and amount with certain top of the
line pressure. The ECU we use here controls the timing and amount of the fuel
getting into the injector. The ECU get the input, analyses it and based totally
on the requirement it presents the output. The fuel flow is being controlled by
this. When the signal for reducing the fuel comes the injector reduces the
flow. The fuel pump is controlled by varying the pulse width according to the
output of the ECU. From the fuel pump after passing through the filter it enters
the injector which substances the fuel to the engine. The fuel supply directly
controls the engine speed as well as the vehicle speed.

Fig. 5. Block diagram of electronic
fuel control system.

2)        
Electro-Hydraulic Braking System:

The main advantage of this braking
system is that it does not affect the actual braking system provided in the
vehicle. This implemented within the car and handiest actuated if it comes into
the location of the RFID range. ECU output is connected to this proposed braking
system. This hydraulic system is accompanied with digital components to allow
coping with of brakes through alerts generated through the ECU.

Fig. 6. Block diagram of Electro-Hydraulic Breaking system.

The circuit diagram of the transmitting unit
and the receiving unit are given below.

D.   
Circuit Diagram of
Transmitting Unit

In the following
circuit diagram of transmitting unit each signboard contains a tag and a RFID
sensor. That sends the data to HT12E encoder that encodes the data and send
through the data transmitter TXD.

Fig. 7. Circuit diagram of transmitting
unit.

E.   
Circuit Diagram of Receiving Unit

In the receiving unit the RXD module is
the data receiver. The obtained records goes to the HT12D decoder. An LED is
connected to the decoder, which helps to realize that the device is working or
not. The decoder gives analog enter to the 89C51 microcontroller. 89C51 has 4KB
of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes of
RAM. A 2X16LCD display is working as the display unit. The audio unit including
playback and recording IC APR9600 is likewise related to the microcontroller.
The motor controlling unit is based on an EEPROM.

 

Fig.
8. Circuit diagram of reciving unit.

                                                                                                                            
V.        
Results
and Discussion

Consistent with the BRTA annual
site visitors coincidence file the average casualty quantity is 5953.2 10 and
according toAccident Research Institute (ARI) of BUET speed reducers or
velocity breaker is liable for the 30% of the whole casualty 11. If we
implement the system this total 30% can be omitted.

TABLE I.           
Total Accidents and
Casualities (2006-2010)

Year

Total of accidents

Death Serious

Injury Simple

Injury

Total casualty

(30% of total)

2006

3794

3193

1888

521

5602

1681

2007

4869

3749

2734

539

7022

2107

2008

4427

3765

2720

564

7049

2115

2009

3381

2958

2223

463

5644

1693

2010

2827

2646

1389

414

4449

1335

For instance inside the year 2010 total casualty was 4449
1. After the use of the proposed speed breaker it would be approximately 1335. So, about 1335 casualties could be
reduced that time. If we are able to put into effect the gadget there can be a
few device loss because of different futile. We can assume 20% system loss. If
such, we could save 1068 people. And the casualties would be 3381.  So this system can be helpful for the BRTA.

Casualties using RFID based Virtual Speed Breaker

Year

Without
speed breakers (casualty)

System Loss (20%)

People could be saved
(without SB –system loss )

Total casualties

Casualties
(if
we would use the system)

2006

1681

336.2

1344.8

5602

4257.2

2007

2107

421.4

1685.6

7022

5336.4

2008

2115

423

1692

7049

5357

2009

1693

338.6

1354.4

5644

4289.6

2010

1335

267

1068

4449

3381

Fig. 9. Circuit diagram of reciving
unit.

The following chart
indicates the result of the usage of RFID based totally virtual pace breaker.
The red curve shows the total causalities till 2010 from 2006.  The green
curve indicates the possibly end result of wide variety of the causalities if
the RFID based digital velocity breaker become used and the blue curve
indicates the wide variety of individuals who can be saved.. 

                                                                                                                                                         
VI.       
Conclusion

This is concluded that the RFID based
virtual speed breaker system is easier to implement instead of the traditional
speed breakers. The cost of implementation is low and the system is durable. This
guarantees maximum safety to passengers and public.. It additionally loose the
vehicle from excess friction and saves the automobile particle from friction
losses. The drivers get all information about the road without distracting him
from driving and gets even in bad weather or low power consumption. It can be
implemented for the roads and highways of Bangladesh for the safety and
digitalization of the transportation systems .

Acknowledgment

Special
thanks to Dr. Engr. Farid Uddin, Dr. Raton Kumar Nondy, Dr. Engr. Syed Faruque
Ahammed, Dr. Engr. Mahbub Ali, Engr. Md. Shahid Iqbal, A. S. M. Forhadul Alam,
Saqibul Amin, Md. Muin Uddin for their cordial help. Everyone has continually
been extraordinarily generous along with his time, knowledge and thoughts and
allowed us awesome freedom on this studies.

Thanks to all the staffs of Mymensingh Engineering College
for helping as per need.

 

 

 

References

1       
National Road Safety Strategic Action Plan 2011 – 2013, BRTA,
Ministry Of Communications, Government of The People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

2       
Policy on Speed Control Devices/Speed Humps, Mississippi.

3       
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4       
A.K.M Masum,F.Bhuiyan, andK. G. Azam,”RFID Applications: Prospects and
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5       
X. H. Fan andY.L.A.Zhang, “Design of bi-verification vehicle
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6       
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2008, pp.
1021-1024

7       
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December 20–22, 2008,vol. 1, pp. 694–697.

8       
H.D.Chon, S.B.Jun, H.J.Jung, and S.W.An, “Using RFID for Accurate
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9       
N. Kassem, W. A. Redmond, A. E. Kosba, and M. Youssef, “RF-Based Vehicle
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10    
National Road Traffic Accident Report 2008, Bangladesh Road Transport
Authority (BRTA).

11    
Annual Accident Report 2010, Accident Research Institute (ARI), BUET,
Dhaka, Bangladesh.