Question 1 Positioning is defined as a developing a specific marketing mix to influence potential customers’ overall perception or a brand, product line, or organization in general (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel 2016). Besides that, it has its roots in the packaged goods field where the concept was called product positioning. It literally meant the product’s form, package size and price as compared to the competition (Maggard 1976, 63). Also, positions are described by variables and within parameters which essentially are selected by them (Dibb, Sally and Simkin 1991). In other words, brand positioning describes how a brand is different from its competitors and where or how it sits in customers’ minds (Marion 2016). Based on the products from the chosen advertisement, it is positioned to help brighten and give consumers more radiant skin. As for the first advertisement that was chosen, L’OREAL Paris WHITE PERFECT, the positioning bases that were used are Attribute and Product Class. Firstly, in the positioning base of Attribute, the advertisement states that the product improved its formula for brown spots and immediate action on skin transparency. Besides that, it is stated in the advertisement that this brand extends its product to the whole WHITE PERFECT care range. Based on the advertisement, this product also contains twice the number of Melano-Block for optimal whitening efficacy and Pure Vitamin C to reveal a healthy, radiant skin. The product class of L’Oreal is the middle class and the upper-middle-class segment (Padhy 2018, 8). The pricing policy for L’Oreal products is reasonable so that the consumers can easily afford them (Bhasin 2018). However, the second advertisement I chose is Safi Balqis UV WHITE. The positioning bases of this product are alike as the first advertisement, Attribute and Product Class. The attributes that can be seen in the advertisement is that the product helps to brighten skin, gives radiant and firmer skin. Besides that, it states that a difference can be seen and felt within only 4 to 6 weeks of using the product. Also, a picture of the Before and After skin effect is shown in the advertisement to prove to the targeted market of how much difference it made when using the skin product. Moreover, this product is a Halal product. It means that this product does not contain alcohol and ingredients from animals. As for the positioning base of the Product Class, Safi Balqis UV White is classified at a lower to upper middle class as its price is affordable for all people and because it is a local Malaysian brand. I think the positioning bases from these advertisements was chosen in relation to the product’s competitors is to make it easy for their target market in terms of decision makings because the important and highlighted details of the advertised product are shown and thus, the targeted marketers will be able to make easier comparisons with other brands in choosing the brand that they think it best for them and also that benefits them the most. The product positioning for products shown in the two advertisements is similar. This is because both of the shown advertisements promotes skin whitening product. In terms of attributes, it is clear from both advertisements that the L’Oreal and Safi Balqis whitening product have various care range. Another similarity between the two advertisements is that it contains ingredients that will help the consumer have radiant and bright skin. There are also a few differences between the two advertisements. One of the differences in the product class of the advertised product due to its price differences. L’Oreal’s product class is slightly above Safi Balqis product class. One of the reasons for this is because L’Oreal is an international brand and Safi Balqis is a local brand in Malaysia. Besides that, Safi Balqis is a ‘Halal’ brand and L’Oreal is not a ‘Halal’ brand. Based on both of the advertisement, the L’Oreal advertisement promotes a new, improved whitening product of their brand, however, Safi Balqis has no statement on its advertisement that it is an improved branding product.Question 2 Market segmentation refers to subdividing a market along with some commonality, similarity, or kinship (Thomas 1980). It is the process of dividing a market into meaningful, relatively similar, identifiable segments or groups (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel 2016). It gives a company a greater ability to better satisfy the needs of its customers (Murray 2016). The purpose of segmentation is the concentration of marketing energy and force on the subdivision to gain a competitive advantage within the segment (Thomas 1980). The three chosen segmentation bases that have been utilized in both of the advertisement are Geographic, Demographics and Psychographics. Geographic segmentation is for dividing the whole market into different geographical region units, such as countries, states, regions, countries, towns or streets (Sun 2009). Demographic segmentation involves dividing the market into groups that are identifiable in terms of physical and factual data (Camilleri 2017). Psychographic segmentation is market segmentation on the basis of personality, motives, lifestyles, and geodemographics (Lamb, Hair, and McDaniel 2008). As for the first advertisement, the L’Oreal White Perfect, based on the Psychographics Segmentation, L’Oreal’s main marketing tool is the innate drive to be attractive to men and women alike. By using young female model, Michelle Reis from the advertisement, L’Oreal accomplishes an important task. Women of all ages and races will see how beautiful women using look using L’Oreal products and that will trigger a personal interest and be interring that L’Oreal products make you beautiful (Target Market 2010). For the Geographic Segmentation, L’Oreal, now the world’s largest cosmetics company, from its origins in France in 1907. The company entered the United States in 1953, and from 1990, expanded rapidly with the acquisition of U.S. brands, which were renewed and then taken international (Jones et al 2005). Lastly, for the Demographic Segmentation, L’Oreal attracts people of different gender (women and men), age (younger and older), and race diversity by offering a complex product portfolio of 32 complementary brands among 5 divisions and 5 product lines (Sirova 2015). Based on the type of magazine of the advertisement, the magazine readers are expected to be committed to becoming medically fit, socially proficient, financially successful and physically beautiful (Newman 2005). As for the second advertisement, Safi Balqis UV White, the Demographic Segmentation for primary and secondary target market are females, teenagers to adult age range (18-45), having an income range of RM1500 to RM5000 a month and is open to all Races and Ethnicity (Said 2014). However, for the Geographic Segmentation, Safi Balqis range target for any young female who want a healthier and fairer skin. Especially when living in Malaysia, these hot weather, sun ray and humid weather can really make Malaysian’s skin darker (Rania 2015, para. 2). Lastly, for the Psychographic Segmentation, it is clear from the advertisement that the target market is for those who are looking for an affordable skin care product. Also, based on the type of magazine, their targeted lifestyle would be healthy, modern, active and socially active. As for their personality, this product targets females who are willing to try new products, confident, passionate and conscious about the use of a chemical in skin care products (Said 2014). Question 3 As for the first advertisement, L’Oreal, theory and practice prove that the use of superstars in advertising generates a lot of publicity and attention from the public (Schlecht 2003). Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their brands. A widely used and very popular type of spokesperson is the celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992). The advertiser has effectively communicated the message as the creative strategies for advertisement has been selected in choosing the themes, especially for the international companies. If the themes of the commercials offend the local people’s traditions or cultures, the advertisement not only cannot sell their products but will also have difficulties obtaining the trust and preference of the customers (Qi 2011). The second advertisement, Safi Balqis promotes activities focus on giving the best deals for their skincare product. However, as a skin product company which has many competitors in the market brand awareness is very low due to less promotional activities of the brand and lack of promotional advertising (Said 2013). People think cheap Malaysia product is not good and effective, thus, people are not confident to use or buy the product. Changing audience perception skin care products helps give a clear and healthy skin by using new creative strategy used to convince and persuade the consumer to use or buy the product such as using local celebrities to promote the brand (Introduction 2013?). Among the two advertisements, the L’Oreal White Perfect advertisement is more effective because its brand is more known to the world and it is a very popular brand that produces very effective advertisements internationally. Also, it gives the readers adequate information about its advertised product that would convince and persuade them well enough to buy their product.