to Alligood (2014b), philosophies are specific theories that focus on one or
more metaparadigm concepts in a wide spectrum philosophical way (p. 43). For someone
to understand philosophies it is required to understand the knowledge type, metaparadigms.
is the vast perspective of a discipline and a way to describe a concern
specifically to a profession or department (Alligood, 2014b, p. 42).
(2014b) explains metaparadigms in nursing knowledge are human beings,
environment, health, and nursing (p. 42). These perceptions are exemplified in each
philosophy and conceptual model (Alligood, 2014b, p. 42).
practice of nursing evolves daily from theories and philosophies proven by
researchers, resulting in the growth of the medical profession and advanced
evidence-based knowledge. A philosophy of nursing would be a broad statement
that would create general ideas about specific values or beliefs. Alligood
(2014b) stated, “Philosophies present the general meaning of nursing and
nursing phenomena through reasoning and logical presentation of ideas” (p. 42).
and Kramer (2015) define the metaparadigm of person aims on the recipient of care
in the aspect of wholeness and the holistic view. This includes a person’s
culture, family, socioeconomic status, and spirituality (p. 46). Western
cultures consider the whole equal to its sum of the parts and stress the
interrelationships amongst the parts; compared to the Eastern culture who believe
healthcare teams must take into consideration all aspects
of the patient to treat them.
to Chinn and Kramer (2015) the metaparadigm environment or society refers to both dependent and independent factors that
are directly significant to the patient and his or her care (p 47). Nightingale believed all people involved in
the care of a patient should maintain a therapeutic setting to heighten the
comfort and healing (Pfettscher, S. A., 2014a). On the other hand, Martha
Rogers believes that humans and the environment are one and their
manifestations derive from mutual developments. She also believes a person is a
consolidated whole and cannot be observed by looking at its parts (Gunther, M.
metaparadigm health, stated by Chinn and Kramer (2015), is distinguished as the
goal of nursing. Health is defined differently among nurse authors varying from
the principle of nursing to assist ill patients while attaining the highest
quality of health, to health being an influential process that alters with life
circumstances (Chinn and Kramer, 2015, p. 47).
Myra Levine avoids the term health or illness and refers to these terms
as conserving wholism. This idea leads nurses to direct their attention to the
entire patient situation and environment instead of the typical factors
referred to by healthcare (Chinn and Kramer, 2015, p. 48).
and Kramer (2015) describe the metaparadigm nursing as the connections and assisting
process amongst a patient and the nurse (p. 45). In addition, how the nurse
attributes the plan of care and the knowledge he or she presents. From a
medical framework, nursing follows the medical aspect. Contrary, the nursing
framework describes interpersonal interaction as the main component with tasks being
supportive. While most nurse authors believe interpersonal interaction as the
center focus of nursing, there are differences that remain. For example, the
patient is the main aspect of directing what plan of care will be taken and the
goals that are achieved. For others, the nurse is predominantly the person
leading the plan of care. Each relationship
is unique and determined by factors like time, culture, experience,
psychological development, situation, age, goals, and values (Chinn and Kramer,
2015, p. 46). Although these relationships vary, the importance of their
similarity is the human interaction for developing health as a whole.
thoughts and beliefs
believe the metaparadigm nursing ties all of the concepts together. The nursing
profession is complex and nurses have the responsibility of someone’s life in
their hands while balancing several tasks. I strongly agree that every
relationship between a patient and myself is different, however the care given
remains the same providing the utmost dedication and love. Some patients and
parents are exceptionally involved in their plan of care, while others just come
to the hospital to be treated and proceed home. The attitude of each individual
strongly determines the plan of care for that particular patient, which leads
into the metaparadigm person.
patient is cared for in the same manner by the healthcare team I work with
daily and everyone is treated based on a holistic standard. Each patient should
be assessed, diagnosed, and treated for after reviewing all aspects of a
patient’s life. New parents come to the hospital terrified to ask questions,
but this is the best time for healthcare providers to educate. For example, with
infants diagnosed with failure to thrive, it is crucial for the healthcare team
to consider all factors related to this patient for them to benefit from the
care given. My concerns would include the formula used, frequency and amount
fed, changes in formula, history of prematurity, and parent’s involvement in
the child’s care. Many factors are vital in treating this patient along with
labs and procedures needing to be completed. Parents may ponder why the nurse
is asking these questions but the resolution could be a simple change in
formula. These questions give the healthcare team a better outlook on the
person, health, and environment.
is a vital aspect in the care of individuals and can alter their healing
process. The environment should be a place where the patient feels safe and the
healthcare team should promote comfort. This is an effortless yet imperative
effort to provide optimal care for a patient. If every person entering a
patients’ room were loud, turning on lights, and then slamming the door, the
patient would not have a calm environment for his or her body to heal,
resulting in a longer visit and complications. Equally important, people can
perform everyday healthy lifestyle changes to better themselves and others
health in my opinion is focusing on preventing and maintaining excellent health
in the hospital and at home. Care should be focused on preventing disease rather
than treating illnesses by working as a team and promoting healthy behaviors, resulting
in patients having better health outcomes. In addition, early detection is a
dynamic aspect of health promotion that is vital to preventing the chronic
disease burden. In my opinion, nurses need to focus on educating patients and
family members more than simply administering a medication or performing a
procedure. Providing education about health to family members could be beneficial
and passed on to people in the community.
Nursing actions are based on
the interrelationships between these four concepts. A person can refer to more
than just the patient but also the support system and healthcare team involved
in one’s care. An individual’s health will be influenced by his or her environment
and everyday lifestyles. Nurses should consider a person’s culture,
spirituality, beliefs, and wishes, as well as their home environment and
overall health and possible lifestyle changes when providing nursing care. It
does not go without difficulty to define one metaparadigm without correlating
with another. In my practice, I believe each of these metapardigms is essential
in caring for patients.