P1 – Internal System Unit Components Processer

P1 – Internal System Unit
Components

 

Processer and options

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The CPU (Central Processing
Unit) is the brains of the computer, it is the part which allows for the four
major processes to take place. These include; fetch, decode, execute and write
back.

In the CPU there is a vital
component, this is known as the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), and this carries
out the necessary arithmetic and logic operations that allow the computer to
function.

Another
vital component is the CU (control Unit), the control unit extracts
instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU for
assistance when necessary.

Most CPU’s
are multicore meaning that they contain more than one processor, this is better
as it means it allows the computer to operate faster as it has more computing
power and can complete more tasks at once.

Processors
run at different clock speeds, this means the speed at which a processor
executes a set of commands.

The CPU
requires a set number of clock ticks/cycles to complete each instruction. The
faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. For
example if the CPU has a clock speed of 3.6 GHZ, which means it is completing 3,600,000,000
instructions in 1 second.

For the CPU to work you need
ram, this is temporary memory where it stores information and data that is
being currently used or that is used frequently to allow for quick access of
the data.

There are 2
different options when I comes to which CPU to buy, you can either buy an Intel
CPU or an AMD CPU. These both have different pin sets, AMD use the PGA pin set,
this involves the pins being on the CPU and the socket on the motherboard
having the female counterpart to the CPU’s pins, compared to the Intel’s LGA
socket which is the opposite having pins on the motherboards socket and having
contacts on the CPU’s surface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motherboards

 

A
motherboard is the backbone of any computer, it is the main connectivity point
which everything else plugs into. It is a large Printed circuit board (PCB)
which can include 6-14 layers of fiberglass, copper connecting traces and
copper planes for power and signal isolation to travel through.

Motherboards
have to include a connection for anything that you may want to add to your
computer, so most modern motherboards will have processor sockets, DIMM, HTX,
PCI, PCIe and M.2 slots as well as power supply connections. There will also be
SATA connections USB connections including 2.0/3.0 and sometimes 3.1.

There are 9
different types of motherboard design, these are;

 ATX, extended ATX, mini-ATX, microATX, BTX,
microBTX, mini ITX, micro ITX and nano ITX.

Sometimes
motherboards also come with dedicated graphics cards (GPU’s) in them, this
means u will not have to pay extra for a GPU.

Motherboards
use either a PGA pin set or LGA pin set like CPU’s, this means they are
specific to certain CPU’s for example this motherboards pins are PGA meaning it
has he female parts on it and it has the connectors.

This motherboard displayed bellow is
an E-ATX motherboard meaning it is an extended ATX

 

BIOS

The BIOS
(Basic Input/output System) is the program on a computer’s processor which is to
get the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flow
between the computer’s OS (operating system) and any connected devices such as
the hard disk, GPU, keyboard, mouse and printer.

 

 

Power supply

 

A power supply is a hardware
component that supplies power to an electrical device. It receives power from
an electrical outlet and converts the current from AC (alternating current) to
DC (direct current), which is what the computer requires. It also controls the
voltage to the correct amount, which allows the computer to run smoothly
without overheating. The power supply is the most important part of any
computer and must function correctly for the rest of the components to work.

 

 

 

Heat Sink

 

A heat sink
is an electronic device that usually is attached to a fan to keep a hot
component such as a processor cool. There are two heat sink types: active and
passive.

Active heat
sinks use the power supply and are usually use a fan. Sometimes these types of
heat sinks are referred to as an HSF, which is short for heat sink and fan.

Passive heat
sinks are 100% reliable, as they have no mechanical parts. Passive heat sinks
are made of an aluminium-finned radiator that dissipates heat through the
heatsink itself. For passive heat sinks to work to their full capacity, there
should be a steady airflow moving across the fins. The picture bellow shows
this

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard Drive Configurations and
Controllers

 

A hard drive
is where the data that you save is stored these disks spin extremely fast usually
at either 5400 or 7200 RPM so that data can be accessed immediately from
anywhere on the drive. The data is stored on the hard drive magnetically, so it
stays on the drive even after the power supply is turned off.

 

SATA

Stands for
“Serial Advanced Technology Attachment,” or “Serial ATA.”
It is an interface used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard

 

IDE

An
integrated development environment is a software suite that contains the basic
tools developers need to write and test software. For example, an IDE contains
a code editor, a compiler or interpreter and a debugger that the developer
accesses through a single graphical user interface.

 

 

EIDE

Enhanced IDE
is a standard electronic interface between your computer and its storage devices.
EIDE’s enhancements to IDE make it possible to address a hard disk larger than
528 Mbytes.

 

Master/Slave

The
master/slave is a model for a communication protocol in which one device (known
as the master) controls one or more other devices (known as slaves). Once the
master/slave relationship is established, the direction of control is always from
the master to the slave.

 

 

Ports

 

USB

Universal
Serial Bus is a common port that enables communication between devices and a computer.
It connects peripheral devices such as digital cameras, mice, keyboards,
printers, scanners, media devices, external hard drives and flash drives

 

Parallel

On PCs, the
parallel port uses a 25-pin connector and is used to connect printers,
computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internal Memory

 

Ram

Random
access memory is the area in which the operating system, application programs
and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device’s
processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds of
storage in a computer, such as a hard disk drive, solid-state drive or optical
drive. Data remains in RAM as long as the computer is running. When the
computer is turned off, RAM loses its data. When the computer is turned on
again, the OS and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from an
HDD or SSD.

 

Rom

Read only
memory contains the programme (the operating system) which allows your computer
to boot up. Rom memory is also in your motherboards BIOS. The data in ROM is
not lost when the computer is turned off.

 

Cache

Cache memory
is RAM that a computers CPU can access more quickly than it can access regular
RAM. This memory is typically built into the CPU chip or placed on a separate
chip that has a separate bus interconnect with the CPU.

 

Specialised Cards

 

Network Card

 

A network
interface card is a circuit board that is installed on the computers
motherboard so that it can be connected to a network.

The card provides
the computer with a dedicated connection to a network. PC’s and workstations on
a local area network usually have a network interface card that has been specifically
designed for the LAN transmission technology inside of them.

 

 

 

Graphics Card

 

A graphics
card is a display adapter installed in most computers to display graphical data
with high clarity, colour, definition and overall appearance.

A graphics
card is designed to take away the graphical processing tasks from the processor
or RAM. IT is its own unit and have dedicated RAM that help it to process graphical
data quickly. Like most processors, a graphics card also has a dedicated heat
sink to keep the heat out of the GPU. A graphics card enables the display of
3-D images, higher pixel ration, a broader range of colours and more. Graphics
cards includes various expansion ports e.g. HDMI, DVI, VGA and Display port

 

Peripherals

 

Output Devices

 

Monitor

The monitor
displays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing them to
interact with the computer, usually using the keyboard and mouse.

Older
computer monitors were built using cathode ray tubes, which made them heavy and
caused them to take up a lot of desk space. Most modern monitors are built
using LCD technology. These thin monitors take up much less space than the
older monitors.

 

Printer

A printer is
a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the
information to paper either, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Ink is usually
used to transfer the information to the paper. In general, more expensive
printers are used for higher-resolution colour printing.

 

Camera

A camera is
used to take photographs or videos, the photos and videos that have been taken
can then be transferred to the computer by using a usb.

 

Input Devices

Scanner

A scanner is
a device used to capture images of a hard copy and convert it into a soft copy.
By doing this it transfers the document from something physical to a document
on the computer.

 

Plotter

A plotter is
a printer that takes commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper
with one or more pens. Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can draw
continuous point-to-point lines from vector graphics files or commands. There
are a number of different types of plotters: a drum plotter draws on paper
wrapped around a drum which turns to produce one direction of the plot, while
the pens move to provide the other direction; a flatbed plotter draws on paper
placed on a flat surface; and an electrostatic plotter draws on negatively charged
paper with positively charged toner.

 

Caballing

Coaxial

A Coaxial
cable is a transmission line that consists of a tube of electrically conducting
material surrounding a central conductor held in place by insulators and that
is used to transmit telegraph, telephone, television, and Internet signals.

 

Optical

A technology
that uses glass threads/fibres to transmit data. A fibre optic cable consists
of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages
modulated onto light waves.

 

Twisted Pair

Twisted pair
cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are
twisted together for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic
interference  from external sources; for example,
electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair cables, and crosstalk
between neighbouring pairs.

 

Backing storage

 

Types

Disk

There are
two different types of disks, these are magnetic disks and optical disks.

Floppy disk:
A typical 5¼-inch floppy disk can hold 360K or 1.2MB (megabytes). 3½-inch
floppies normally store720K, 1.2MB or 1.44MB of data. Floppy disks or obsolete
today, and are found on older computer systems.

Hard disk:
Hard disks can store anywhere from 20MB to more than 1-TB (terabyte). Hard
disks are also from 10 to 100 times faster than floppy disks.

Removable
cartridge: Removable cartridges are hard disks encased in a metal or plastic
cartridge, so you can remove them just like a floppy disk. Removable cartridges
are very fast, though usually not as fast as fixed hard disks.

Optical

Optical
storage is any storage method where the data is written and read with a laser
to save it. Usually, data is written to optical media, such as CDs and DVDs.

Flash

A solid
state drive which uses non-volatile memory to retain data.

 

Portable

A storage
device that can be attached to a computer through a USB connection, or
wirelessly. External hard drives typically have high storage capacities and are
often used to back up computers or serve as a network drive. Data is usually transferred
through the USB port in these devices.

Fixed

A hard disk
drive is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve
digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks coated with
magnetic material.

 

 

 

 

M1 –Comparing and Contrasting

 

Western Digital – Caviar Blue

This is a
solid hard drive and has a 7200RPM and is 1TB, it costs £40. This s a very low
end HDD being slow and holding a small amount of storage. Its data transfer
rate is in the low Mb/s as it is very slow.

 

Intel – DC P3608

This is a
PCI-e solid state drive, it is one of the most upmarket storage types as it
connects directly to the motherboard via PCI-e meaning its transfer rates are
up to 8GB/s  compared to the Mb/s of the
hard drive that has been stated above.

 

Recommendation

I would
recommend that the Western Digital – Caviar Blue HDD should be used as it does
everything that the business needs to accomplish in the time frame, it doesn’t
need to be too fast but it completes the purpose it has been bought for .

Comparison

Urban mobile
does not need its data transfer rates to be too high they just need it to be
within a reasonable timeframe for example 10 seconds whereas a company such as
google would need a much higher transfer rate as they are a search engine, so
their data centre would need to have much faster data storage.      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P2 –Types of disaster recovery

 

Types of backup storage

You can back
up the data to; An External Hard Drive

                                                 A Solid State Drive

                                                 Network Attached Storage    

                                                Cloud
Storage

I would
advise backing up urban mobiles data to the cloud as it is a very good offsite
backup. That isn’t affected by events and disasters such as theft, floods, fire
etc. Also they could also copy their data to an external hard drive that is on
site as this is a very good option for local backups of large amounts of data as
it is the cheapest storage option in terms of pounds per GB it is also very
reliable when handled with care.

The cloud
backup would be located offsite in for example one of googles data centres or
whoever is hosting the cloud service and the External HDD would be located on
site, meaning urban mobile would need to purchase the equipment to allow for
them to store this data.

The data
should be backed up at the end of every day to make sure if any new customers
have joined they will have a backup of their info and to make sure the backup
is as up to date as it can possible be.

The data
that will be backed up will be user accounts, information, stock quota and
current prices along with customer purchase history as well as staff
information, staff payroll etc.

I decided to
advise Urban Mobile to use cloud storage as this means they don’t have to worry
out maintaining a server meaning they will not have to hire specialist staff to
ensure the maintenance and running of it, also it means it isn’t affected by
disasters or theft etc.

It also
means urban mobile could in theory reduce annual their operating costs by using
cloud storage; cloud storage costs about 2 pence per gigabyte to store data
internally. Users can see additional cost savings because it does not require
internal power to store information remotely. Also, it means Stored files can
be accessed from anywhere via Internet connection.

As mentioned
before cloud storage is located offsite using a company’s data storage services

 

 

 

 

P3 –Appropriate components

 

The software
that would run on the servers would be, OpenMediaVault, as it has a very clean
and user-friendly UI, also it is based on Debian meaning it will receive
frequent patch and updates

The server
that I advise using will be the ASUSTOR AS-604T as it is not too expensive at
£308, it contains four bays meaning there will be enough space to add extra
storage cater for the company’s needs. It also contains a cloud backup as well
as being able to run RAID.

It will be
cloud connected meaning that the data will be transferred wirelessly, or you
can manually connect it in a LAN also.

An off-site
server engineer will need to be hired meaning if something goes wrong he can be
phoned in order to get the problem resolved.

This set up
is very accessible as the server is simple and easy to understand, the software
used in it us user friendly and has a clean interface.

 

Operating systems

The role of
an operating system is to control the backing store and peripherals such as
scanners and printers, to deal with the transfer of programs in and out of
memory, the organisation of memory between programs, to organises processing time
between programs and users, to maintains security and access rights of users,
to deals with errors and user instructions and it allows the user to save files
to a backing store as well as providing  the interface between the user and the
computer – for example, Windows Vista and Apple OS.

Utility Software

Utility
software are applications which allow the user to manage the computer, examples
of utility software are, Backup, disk cleaner, disk defrag, formatting. These
are the maintenance utilities, some of the security utilities include, User
accounts, encryption, antivirus software and firewalls.

Application Software

Application
software, also known as an application or an app, is computer software designed
to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include accounting
software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Applications may
be bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be published
separately. In recent years, the abbreviation “app” has specifically
come to mean application software written for mobile devices

P4 –Installing Hardware

 

 

The RAM slot has been opened and the 2GB stick on top of the power supply
is ready to be inserted into the open slot, so it can but put into dual channel
with the other 2GB Ram stick

 

 

 

 

 

The ram has
been inserted and has been closed locking it into place meaning it will not
come loose and fall out.

 

 

 

 

Once
inserted correctly this should appear when the ram has been inserted and if it
does not it would suggest something has been done wrong.

 

 

 

P5 – Maintenance

 

Types of
preventive maintenance include installing Windows updates, scanning for viruses
and malware, and running cleaning programs. Anti-virus and anti-malware scans
should also be run at least once a week. Be sure to run updates for these
programs whenever they “rereleased, as new viruses and malware spring up
constantly. Keeping your network secure, installing a firewall, and using safe
downloading practices can protect your computer and any information on it from
being compromised. Power surges and overheating can destroy electronic
equipment, so protect your hardware by investing in a surge protector and
cleaning your equipment periodically to remove dust. Should any preventative
measures fail, it is always a good idea to have a backup for important files:
Invest in an external hard drive to save any important files should your
computer need replacing.

Types of
remedial maintenance would be for if the mouse is unresponsive if the mouse
doesn’t show up on the screen or doesn’t seem to move correctly, then you must
go to start