p.p1 Access control and Physical layer. In

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A Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of heterogeneous network node forming the temporary networks without the aid of any infrastructure or any centralized administrator. They do not have gateway, every node can act as the gateway. The wireless arena has been experiencing exponential growth in 21st Century. The IEEE Standard 802.11 is used for ad hoc networks which specifies Medium Access control and Physical layer. In ad hoc network every node has its own transmission range, which in turn combine to form a bigger transmission area. Nodes use hopping technique to transmit data.  To make this process more effective , an appropriate routing algorithm should be implemented.

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Routing protocols are designed based on the requirement such as when the data is to be exchanged,  what data should be exchanged, how routes are calculated etc. In proactive algorithms routes are calculated in the before hand , so nodes use these routes for information exchange. OLSR routing algorithm is an example of proactive. Whereas in reactive algorithms route is calculated only when there are nodes that need to be communicated. AODV is an example of reactive algorithm. Multiple paths between any two given nodes can have better throughput and recovering connection failure is also easy , but overhead of route discovery in multi path routing more when compared with a single path routing algorithm. In table driven routing protocol information about each node to other node is updated. Where as in on demand routing ,nodes calculate if they have to exchange data from each other. They don’t have to update information. For a routing algorithm to be best suited it should overcome following routing problems in ad hoc network