INTRODUCTION concerns are preventable if efforts are

INTRODUCTION

 

 
               Women are often
referred to as the driving force of a country. They have to embrace various
roles in society like that of a daughter, a wife, a mother and along with that
manage their respective workplace roles. Earlier the circumstances differed since
women were looked down if desired to work but as per changing times, women are
moving out of their domestic sphere. Women have reached the pinnacle in every
field thus proving Darwin’s theory incorrect which once stated that women are
biologically inferior to men.

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   Unquestionably, the biological compositions
of men and women are different so when both are affected with similar health
issues, they endure it differently. Poor nutrition and low physical activity
among women of younger ages pose grave health risk which again leads to
cardiovascular and other disorders at later ages. Particular attention is
needed when women go through their period of gestation which is a crucial time
for a woman since she sustains two lives at the same time. As per the framework
of WHO, ‘Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters
relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.’ In
most of the developing regions, intricacies of pregnancy and childbirth are
among the leading causes resulting into mortality and morbidity of women of
reproductive age. Statistics from WHO stated that every day in 2015, about 830
deaths among women occurred due to complications related to pregnancy and
childbirth. Majority of these concerns are preventable if efforts are made in
order to keep women informed regarding the dos and don’ts of/during pregnancy
which will enable the couple to be bestowed upon with a healthy infant. A
mother’s immunity and prenatal care often decide the baby’s safety from various
infections and disorders. Several things need to be kept in check viz. body
weight, blood pressure, glucose level, hemoglobin and so on.

 

About
Diabetes

 
                    Globally, the
prevalence of diabetes is increasing, especially the developing countries
contribute majorly. WHO defines diabetes as a chronic, metabolic disease
characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads
overtime to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and
nerves. Insulin is a hormone that allows the cells to absorb sugar from the
blood which is needed to produce energy.

 

Types
of Diabetes

Diabetes can be classified into 3
categories viz. (WebMD & WHO)

1)
Type 1 diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, the hormone
called insulin is destroyed by the immune system of a body, which puts an end
to the production of insulin from the body. As stated above insulin is
necessary for the body since it helps produce energy.

 

2)
Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, the body isn’t
capable of manipulating the insulin in an appropriate manner creating insulin
resistance. Eventually pancreas forge less and less insulin thereby giving rise
to insulin deficiency.

 

3)
Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed
during pregnancy in which the hormones secreted during the gestational period
seem to interfere with the functions of insulin. This condition increases the
risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

 

 

Symptoms
(WHO)

Symptoms are more or less similar
for all three types of diabetes wherein there is elevated level of thirst
(polydipsia), frequent urination (polyuria), hunger (polyphagia), numbness in
extremities, pain in feet (disesthesias), blurred vision, extreme nausea
(ketoacidosis), unconsciousness, infections and blurred vision.

 

 

Diagnosis
(WHO)

Diabetes can be diagnosed by
performing an abnormal blood test, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for
gestational diabetes and presence of classic symptoms of hyperglycemia.
Diabetic screening is suggested if the size of the baby is larger than usual in
case of gestational diabetes.