I’d was proposed by Jacobus Boomsma in

I’d like to expand on some of
the things you mentioned about kin evolution, as well as some of the issues
with this theory. I’d also like to mention two other leading hypotheses for
eusocial evolution: the monogamy hypothesis and the inbreeding hypothesis.

 

The theory that eusocialism evolved
through kin selection was proposed by William D. Hamilton. Kin selection is
when individuals help relatives, such as their mother, with their reproduction process
because this helps spread some of their own genes. Hamilton deduced that many hymenoptera evolved to be eusocial through
kin selection based on their unique genetic sex determination traits. In hymenoptera,
males are produced from un-fertilized eggs, which means that they have only one
set of chromosomes. Females, on the other hand, are produced from fertilized
eggs. This results in sisters, from single-mated mothers, sharing 75% of their
genes, while mothers only share 50% of their genes with their offspring. Therefore, sisters
choosing to stay in a nest and help their mother produce more sisters helps
spread their genes more efficiently then leaving the nest to produce their own
offspring. There are some issues with kin selection, though. Kin selection, as
a mechanism for eusocial evolution, seems to agree with patterns found in Hymenoptera.
However, kin selection cannot be used to explain diploid eusocial organisms,
where sister-sister relatedness and parent-offspring relatedness are about the
same. Moreover, even in Hymenoptera, sister-sister relatedness can decrease when
queens mate with multiple males. However, despite these shortcomings, kin
selection is still seen as an important mechanism to study in order to further
understand the evolution of eusocialism.

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Another mechanism through which
eusocialism
may have evolved was elaborated on by the monogamy hypothesis. The monogamy hypothesis was
proposed by Jacobus Boomsma in 2007. Today, this is one of the leading
hypothesis cited for how eusocialism initially evolved in hymenoptera. This uses the kin
selection theory in a way that it can apply to both haploid and diploid
organisms. If a queen only mates with one individual her whole life, her
offspring will be related to their siblings and their own offspring, equally. Under
these circumstances, natural selection will favor communal living because it is
more efficient to raise siblings than offspring. This maybe how eusocialism
first evolved. Many species of ants, bees, and wasps have a unique form of lifetime
monogamy in which a queen mates with a single male and that male then dies
before the colony is started. This type of monogamy seems to have evolved from
an ancestral state that is shared among
all Hymenoptera that have evolved to be eusocial. Another form of monogamy is
found in termites, where a reproductive female and male, known as the king and
queen, mate with each other exclusively, and this pattern appears to be
ancestral in termites.  

 

In species that are philopatry (the tendency to stay or return to a
particular area), rarely do individuals leave the nest permanently. This can
lead to intense inbreeding, which is common among some eusocial species. This
can leads to siblings sharing over 75% of their genes. Like in kin selection, sisters
can help spread their genes more efficiently by helping their mother produce
more siblings rather than having offspring of their own.