Genes on genes. Also, the environmental component

Genes
have an effect on the human body as the task of DNA is to make sure that a cell
works properly and is carrying the complete genetic material of a cell.
However, if alterations occur in a gene, which is a part of a DNA, it can have
consequences on health and cause disorders.

The
risk of developing a specific disease, however does not only relay on genes.
Also, the environmental component plays a huge role within the risk of getting
a disease. Hence diseases get categorised into either “genetic diseases”,
“Multifactorial diseases” or “environmental diseases”. To distinct them, every
category has their own characteristics. „Genetic diseases” are most of the time
single-genes disorders and their mutations in a DNA can be passed to the next
generation as the damaged gene can be found in sex cells. However only because
the gene gets passed on, it doesn’t mean that the disease have to occur, but
people with a certain anomaly are at higher risk getting specific diseases. An
example for this kind of disease would be the cystic fibrosis but they are generally
really rare. (- Stewart A)

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On
the other hand, all the more regular maladies such as heart diseases, diabetes,
Cancer and Alzheimer are more complex and are named “multifactorial diseases” where
the inheritance pattern and therefore the genes have an influence. Therefore,
mutation in certain genes like BRCA1, BRCA2, p53 or PTEN genes are increasing
the risk in breast cancer for women and mutations in amyloid precursor protein,
Presenilin 1 or Presenilin 2 genes expands the exposure for Alzheimer disease. Nonetheless
it can’t be said with 100 percent certainty which element in a gene is really
responsible for the susceptibility of a disease as many genes due to high variation
and complexity have immense impact. Since its called multifactorial not only
genes have an impact on the development, however a combination of environmental
factors and the interaction of numerous genes has the result of the outbreak. Considering
that, actual environmental ailments don’t exist as genes are always involved as
soon as it comes to human errors due to their influence on behaviour and
characteristics of a human being. (- Stewart
A)

 

 

3.2 Personalized medicine

 

One
component of genomics in Public health is the field of personalized medicine,
since genetic material is meant to be included in medical judgments. For instance,
it should optimize predicting the risk of an individual, providing the right
treatment and giving further information for health care strategies. As
remarkable progress has been made regarding the research of genetics, it also
found its way to the development of treatments and therapy methods. Therefore,
the information that has been gathered from an individual, focuses not only on
people at their onset of the disease but also on their wellbeing to either
prevent outbreaks or keep them healthy. To accomplish this goal, health risk
assessment is an important element, as it evaluates the chances of an
individual getting infected. On the other hand, also, family health history is
a helpful method to obtain information about the health risk of a patient as it
illustrates the connection of genetics, environment and lifestyle. In the table
below, it can be seen to what extend relationships in a family have
consequences on the risk development for specific diseases. An example are families where lung cancer has occurred
earlier in a parent or sibling 1.7 – 2.5 times more likley to develop this
specific cancer. In Colon cancer this chance is even higher as the odds ration comes
to 2.0 – 2.6.