Hiatt and Creasey (2003) Explain that for successful implementation of change it is very important for an organization to not just focus on business strategies and new technologies but also focus on the employee. In implementation process, it is very important to keep a balance between strategies and employees. If organization attention is only technology, not employee than employee might not have enough knowledge to work in a new environment or implement successful change. Nastase et al (2012) also, discuss the importance of employee in an organization. According to them, it is very important to check that employee is ready and have enough skills while implementing new change.
According to Moran and Brightman (2001) leader play very important role in change management process. The leader provides an environment which helps an employee to experiment and learn new skills, they provide directions for changes. Because of all these reasons, it is very important for leader first understand the change and adopt the change.
Beer and Nohria (2000) stated that many organization fails in initiatives change because the higher officer wants to adopt new technology without a focus on the culture of an organization, need of technology skills.
Palmer and Dunford (1996) have discussed that it is very important for an organization that they have clear goal that why they want to change in the organization. How to deal with this change. To implement this change what sort of technology, training, knowledge, and skills are required. They also explain that if organization are not clear about their needs and changing that chances of failure much higher than success.
Communication is also very important factor in managing change. Better communication reduces fight in the organization. Reduce fight improve productivity and increase the performance of an employee and led to successful change implementation (Goodman & Dean, 1982; Tannenbaum, 1971; Robertson et al., 1993). Better communication also motivates the employee to perform their duty and understand and support strategies for new change (Barrett, 2002).
Todnem (2005) describe that due to rapid changing of new technology, economy it is very important for an organization to manage and implement change. The company who can adopt and implement change quickly can easily understand the requirements of their customer and become successful than their competitors.
The above discussion shows the importance of adoption of new technology and importance of management. Balance is very important in an organization for example if the organization only focus on technology, not on employee’s skills and knowledge and vice versa then they will not be able to implement successful change in an organization.
McKinsey 7 S Theory
The First theory of change model is the 7S model. This model was developed by Tom Peters and Robert Watermain 1980.This model is the combination of 7 components all of them start with These components are Structure, Systems, Style, Skills, Staff, Shared Values, Strategy.it is very important for an organization to clearly understand each phase of this model during the strategy implementation process. All these components are interconnected with each other and provide a brief explanation of change management requirements (Peters, 2011). Sometimes 7s model becomes more complex because you need to understand these components due to the connection between them. If a change occurs in one component than it will affect all other components as well. But still, it provides good direction to the organization about their current and future condition (Waterman et al. 1980). Ravinia (2015) Explain that 7S model is divided into two parts “Hard S” and “soft S” strategy, structure, system are part of Hard S and style, staff, skill and shared value are Soft S. This model is very efficient during the implementation process. Sometimes it is very difficult to maintain Soft S in an organization than hard S. All the 7 components of this model are used to critically analyse the current business environment and the way business is achieving its goal and provide a favourable environment for further change and improvement in an organization. In addition, this model understands the culture of a company and provide appropriate organization culture and motivates and help employees and leaders to work collaboratively adopt new skills and understand and fulfil the needs of customers.
Kotter model is one of the efficient model and its allow organization to embedded change effectively in this model 8 steps are involved. Appelbaum et al. (2012) explain each step and highlight that each step plays an important role during the implementation process. First step is manager and leader need to create urgency for change, identify key people and team for change, clear vision of change is why you are asking to perform some task what is reason for this, demonstrate the change by communication with people, remove problems by taking Feedback from people, divide your project in to sizable pieces and check at the end of each phase, keep repeating all your change process, make sure change implement forever. This model shows that each phase is very important and for successful implementation of change all steps require equal attention. This model does not focus on change rather it focusses is how to prepare for the change in each step by communicating with stakeholders and senior majors. The major advantage of this model is that you can divide your project in small chunks and check each task at the end phase, so it can provide you the better understanding of how you successful implementing your change.
Smith (2011) discuss that Kotter provides a complete framework to manage the complex change in an organization. Change can only be effective if all steps must have implemented. Another very important criteria for implantation is managers or leader make sure that change process performs in a sequence because in this model it is required that all task must perform is a sequence to improve the quality of the process.
Hornstein (2015) discuss that project management and change management are different they use different techniques and methods. But some steps of Kotter model help in project management process as well. And help project management process to become successful. In project management, there is no brief information about how to manage organizational change and how and when communicate with your stakeholders related to change. But some steps of Kotter model help project management to clearly understand and learn skills that help project manager to successfully implement change during your project.
Kurt Lewin’s Three Phase Model:
Yeo (2005) discussed that change process can be more effective if during the learning process of change all members of organization whether they are employee, manager or a team leader work collaboratively. Kurt Lewin’s model is very useful because it gives you a deep insight while developing new process and provide equal opportunities for all member to learn and participate in the change process. Schein (1999) state that most of the organizations fail to implement change at the beginning of change process because they never check the readiness of employee. Choi and Ruona (2009) discussed that Lewis model provides better opportunities to check the level of readiness of your employees. The change became more successful and accurate if all members are ready to accept new change. So, the transformation from the old state to new state Unfreezing stage help by checking the readiness and willingness to accept new changes by employees. This stage also helps leader to motivate employees to involve in the new plan and perform their task effectively.
Adams and McNichols (2007) have explained Lewin’s Three stages of the model. The first stage in unfreezing and in this phase communication about why the new change in an organization is very important and make sure that if any person in the organization has some doubt and questions about new changes then discuss them in this phase. This phase is also very important to give clear picture because most of changes fails because employees were not able to understand the new change process. The second phase is change, and motivation is very important in this phase to communicate with employees that how this new change will benefit them. And the last stage is refreezing and now change is part of your organization it is a duty of the leader to check that every member is familiar with new change provide training if necessary. All these phase lead to successful business.
Weiner (2009) stated that moving from traditional process to innovation is very difficult for the organization. Its need readiness and new skills to implement new change process. Lewin model is best because it checks the level of readiness at three different phases at the start, during implementation, and after implementation. This model focuses on all the aspect of business and required that all employee, leaders, and organization itself ready to adopt new change. Have clear plan and enough knowledge and skills to implement new change.