Cancers cancer risk. It has even been

Cancers arise through a series of somatic alterations in DNA that result in unrestricted proliferation of cells. Most of the alterations involved in cancer first lead to loss of function in genes responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. The resulting chromosomal instability gives rise to micronuclei aka Howell-Jolly Bodies.Micronuclei are fragments of chromosomes or whole chromosomes that are left out of daughter nuclei during division. They are round to oval in shape with a diameter ranging from 1/3rd to 1/16th of the main nucleus. They are similar to the main nucleus in most every other aspect. The International Collaborative Project on Micronucleus Frequency in Human Population aims to assess the viability of the micronucleus method to assess chromosomal damage. It has already proven that micronuclei study is a reliable method of assessing genomic damage. Micronuclei have been used as a biomarker of genotoxicity as well, thus making it an apt candidate to use for detecting genetic damage and cancer risk. It has even been suggested that micronuclei may even contribute directly to tumour generation. Thus, the aim of this study will be to compare the micronuclei score seen in fine needle aspirates from benign and malignant breast tumours to establish a relationship  between the micronuclei score and the frade of malignancy.ObjectivesAs micronuclei scoring is used to establish the existing level of genomic damage, it should also be possible for it to be used as a tool to identify and grade malignancy. The objective of this study is to establish a relationship between the micronuclei score and the malignancy to prove that micronuclei scoring is a feasible method for detecting breast carcinomas and grading it. This is to be accomplished by comparing micronuclei scores of a baseline population(fibroadenomas)  with micronuclei score in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast of various grades.MethodologyImplicationsIf a clear relationship can be established between the micronuclei scoring and the grade of malignancy of a tumour, it provides us with a much simpler, quicker, easier, economic, more sensitive and minimally invasive method of detecting and grading breast carcinoma.ReferencesHemalatha A, Suresh T N, HarendraKumar M L. Micronuclei in breast aspirates. Is scoring them helpful?. J Can Res Ther 2014;10:309-11 Sylvia MT, Baskaran L, Bhat RV. Micronucleus study on breast cytology aspirate smears and its diagnostic utility. J Cytol 2018;35:22-6.