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Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)POWER ENGINEERING PRINCIPLESAssignment 1Student Name: Date: Click here to enter M.Mohamed Azharudeen a date.Assessed By: Date: Click here to enter Click here to enter text. a date. Created By: Akhtar Kalam. Date: January 2018 Reviewed By: Akhtar Kalam. Date: January 2018  Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)General Information for CandidatesHow is this task assessed?At the senior Bachelor’s Degree level you will be able to demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:? with creativity and initiative to new situations in professional practice and/or for further learning? with high level personal autonomy and accountability? to plan and execute a substantial research based project, capstone experience and/or piece ofscholarshipGradesHD – High Distinction 85-100%D – Distinction 75-84%C – Credit 65-74%F – Fail 0-49%Decisions will be based on the following considerations:? all parts of the assessment task/s have been completed to a standard that satisfactorily meets the requirements set out in all of the assessment criteria (as set out in the unit outline).? the assessment tasks are the student’s own work, except as appropriately acknowledged by the use of referencing.? correct use of IEEE reference style for all researched evidence? the researched evidence is recent and knowledge is up-to-date? the researched evidence is consistent showing competency over a period of time suggesting sustained performance (i.e. not just a one off).Assessment Task Instructions:1. The best marks can be earned by giving concise brief answers that addresses the questions as put to you.2. The time indicated is tentative and is not meant to restrict your answers3. The main idea behind the use of assignment questions are for you, the student, to learn and understand the material by reading it and answering the questions as put. Cutting and pasting from internet sites or the study material does not enhance that learning process. However, appropriate diagrams can be pasted if you cannot draw them, but make sure you acknowledge the source by referencing.4. Attempt ALL questions5. Use this document for furnishing your answers by typing the answers after each question without deleting the question. Use this Microsoft Word document as it stands. Make sure that you preserve the original question number format and that you don’t change the question numbers by adding extra lines or deleting existing ones.6. Do not add extra pictures etc. as Annexures but add the pictures and diagrams directly into this main answer sheet by pasting. Hand drawn sketches can be inserted after scanning but please ensure that the assignment file size does not become big (more than 10 MB).7. Refer in the text to diagrams and pictures etc. that you have drawn or pasted in. Do not only paste them into the document without referring to them in the text.8. Finally, when saving your document (it must be in WORD FORMAT), ensure you save the title to include your name : COURSECODE_UNIT#_ASSIGNMENT_VERSION#_YOURNAMEE.g. Assignment1_v1_BOB_BROWN9. Please ensure that all answers must be in your own words. Copying and pasting is not allowed. Plagiarism can affect your academic progression at VU. Plagiarism software will be used to identify any possible cases of plagiarism. Refer to VU Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Detection Policy and Software Guidelines.10. Please ensure you sign and date the below statement to verify your assessment submission as your own material.HE_Assignment1_YOUR NAME HERE_v3docx Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)I certify that the attached assignment is my own work and that any material drawn from other sources has been acknowledged.Copyright in assignments remains my property. I grant permission to Victoria University (VU)to make copies of assignments for assessment, review and/or record keeping purposes. I note that the VUreserves the right to check my assignment for plagiarism. Should the reproduction of all or part of an assignment be required by the VU for any purpose other than those mentioned above, appropriate authorization will be sought from me on the relevant form.Please place an ‘X’ in the box below to indicate that you have read, understood and certify the above statement. Please include this page in/with your submission. Please submit your assignment directly to the Unit Coordinator.AGREEMENT: X DATE:   28.01.2018. HE_Assignment-_M.MohamedAzharudeen_v3docx Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)Power Engineering PrinciplesThis assignment will contribute 20% weight towards the overall grade for this unit. Suggested time allocation to complete this assignment is 3 hours.Rationale:This assessment item will evaluate your achievement standard for the learning outcomes 1 of this unit and demonstrating the attainment of VU graduate attributes. Learning outcome:1. Discriminate between the elements of the supply chain and how they function in order to map and interrogate the roles of transmission, distribution, and auxiliary networks.2. Contextualise alternative generation such as hydro generation, wind and solar generation and other energy generation systems to known and unknown situationsGraduate Attributes:A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse, and organize information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.B2. Ability to innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.D1. Breadth and depth of knowledge of engineering and understanding of future developments.C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.You are required to answer short essay type problems totalling about 200 words to each question demonstrating a deep understanding of energy sources and different methods of power generation and energy storage.HE_Assignment1_M.MohamedAzharudeen_v3docx Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)Assignment 1 QuestionsINSTRUCTIONS: Short answers, + 200 words required to each question.QUESTION 1Explain the following:? Working principles and functions of a Generator in a power system layout. Answer:Working Principles of generator is electromagnetic induction.It is said to be when a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic flied there will be a emf(Electro motive force) induced in the conductor.Functions of generatorElectric generator is used to convert mechanical energy obtained from external source into electrical energy as an output.? Laws of Electromagnetic Induction and the rule which states the direction of induced E.M.F and current.Answer:• Faraday’s First law of electromagnetic induction state that whenever a conductor are placed in a varying magnetic field EMF are induced which are know as induced EMF ,if the conductor circuit closed current are also induced which is know as induced current• Faraday’s second law of electro magnetic induction state that the induced EMF is equal to the rate of change of flux linkage • Flemming’s right hand rule and lenz’s law states the direction of induced EMF and current? Mutual Induction in a Transformer along with the E.M.F equation and Voltage Transformer Ratio.Answer:QUESTION 21. What is reactive powerAnswer:• Reactive power exists in an ac circuit when the current and voltage are not in phase.• Unit of reactive power is VAR (volt-ampere reactive).2. What causes low power factor in Electrical SystemAnswer:• The cause of low power factor is inductive load• Varying in the load• Industrial heating furnaces• Electrical discharge lamps• Transforms• Harmonic currents3 How to improve Power FactorAnswer:• To improve the power factor phase difference between the voltage and current to be reduced. • This can be done by putting a capacitor parallel to the load QUESTION 3Research and explain how in a transmission system, the stability and efficiency, and Power Factor of the system are affected by the type of connected load. Elaborate the above specifically with respect to linear and non-linear loads (like power supply rectifier, electric welding machine, or arc furnace).Answer:QUESTION 4Discuss the past, present, and future trends of power industry in respect to a particular country, for example, your own country.Answer:Past:In past days the generation of electricity was first started by hydro power plant (130kw) in Darjeeling.At that time the requirement for electricity was very less so the high production is not required.Later thermal power plant were introduced and production was increased to thousand  MV  range.QUESTION 5Discuss environmental impacts of power generation from fossil fuel, especially the impacts by coal-fired power plant.Answer:Most electricity today is generated by burning fossil fuels and producing steam which is then used to drive a steam turbine that, in turn, drives an electrical generator. Now a days burning of fossil fuels emits more unwanted gases.  Fossil fuels constitute a significant repository of carbon buried deep underground. Burning of fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide which in turn released into atmosphere. This results in an increase in the Earth’s levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, which enhances the green house effect and contributes to global warming. The linkage between increased carbon dioxide and global warming is well accepted, though fossil-fuel producers vigorously contest these findings.Depending on the particular fossil fuel and the method of burning, other emissions may be produced as well. ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen and other gases are often released, as well as particulate matter. Sulphur and nitrogen oxides contribute to smog and acid rain.  Fossil fuels, particularly coal, also contain dilute radioactive material, and burning them in very large quantities releases this material into the environment, leading to low levels of local and global radioactive contamination, the levels of which are, ironically, higher than a nuclear power plant as their radioactive contaminants are controlled and stored.QUESTION 6List benefits of solar energy. Also explain why with so many benefits, the utility and infrastructure development of solar energy generation is limited?Answer:• Low maintenance• Consistent and constant power• Energy security• Energy independence• Silent operation• Low space required• Roof protection• Off grid living option• Solar panels are built to lastUtilization of solar energy is limited because of the availability of sunlight is not for whole day. When the sunlight goes down then the production of electricity is affected. At that time we have to get electricity from other source, apart from these we have to depends on batteries for storage of electricity because in night time we cant get the sunlight.Infrastructure of solar energy generation is very costly. Setup for the photovoltaic need more to be invested. There are three panel types namely  monocrystalline, polycrystalline, thin film amorphous. Each panel cost according to their usage.  QUESTION 7Compare the accidents of Chernobyl disaster (1986) and Fukushima (2011) in relation to nuclear power generation.Answer:  Date of the accident March 11, 2011 April 26, 1986Type of reactor BWR-3 and BWR-4 reactors with Mark I containment vesselsRBMK-1000 graphite moderated, 2nd generation reactor without containmentNumber of reactors 6 on site; 4 (and spent fuel pools) involved in accident; one of the four reactors was empty of fuel at the time of the accident. 4 on site; 1 involved in accidentCause of the accident The plants were not designed with consideration of such a large tsunami. A major earthquake and tsunami caused the destruction of power lines and backup generators. Once the plants were without external power and the generators were flooded, a catastrophic decay heat casualty ensued, leading to major reactor plant damage including meltdowns and explosive loss of reactor containment.citation neededProximate cause was human error and violation of procedures. The unsafe reactor design caused instability at low power due to a positive void coefficient and steam formation. When an improper test was conducted at 1:00 am at low power, the reactor became prompt critical. This was followed by a steam explosion that exposed the fuel, a raging graphite fire, and a core meltdown.Maximum level of radiation detected 210 SY /h inside Unit 2 containment vessel six years after meltdown.6300 SY /h shortly after the explosion in vicinity of the reactor coreRadioactivity released As of 2014, a peer reviewed estimate of the total was 340–800pPBQ with 80% falling into the Pacific Ocean. Radiation continues to be released into the Pacific via groundwater. 5.2 EBQ (5,200 PBQ)  Area affected Radiation levels exceeding annual limits seen over 60 kilometers (37 mi) to northwest and 40 kilometers (25 mi) to south-southwest, according to officials. An area up to 500 kilometers (310 mi) away contaminated, according to the United Nations.QUESTION 8Research and elaborate on the benefits of using Natural gas for power generation and substantiate with data to highlight that this energy fuel is gaining popularity in country like Australia.END OF ASSIGNMENT 1HE_Assignment1_M.Mohamed Azharudeen_v3docx