Petroleum

Formation

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Petroleum is a fossil fuel that was created over millions of years from the
remnants of marine organisms. Millions of years ago, after organisms such
as algae and plants died they sank to the bottom of the ocean. Here, they mixed
with sediment and other material before being buried over millions of years.
Over these millions of years, the remains of these organisms were subject to extremely
high pressures and temperatures which resulted in what is today known as fossil
fuels. An example of one of these fossil fuels is petroleum (Morse and
Turgeon, 2013). Catalytic reforming is a process that takes
straight chain hydrocarbons in the bracket of C6 to C8 from the fractions of
gasoline or naphtha. It then reorganises them into compounds containing benzene
rings. the reactions produce hydrogen as a by-product. An example of reforming
is when hexane (C6H14) loses hydrogen and becomes benzene
(Clark, 2016).

 

(Clark, 2016).

 

 

Platforming processes

 

PHARMACOLOGY

Preformulation
testing has a substantial position in the discovery of a new drug and is
heavily involved in the development program. This is due to the beneficial
feedback offered. By it to the discovery and development teams during lead
identification and optimization of the drug.

 

 

 

 

The most common form of drug instability is through
a loss of potency as a direct result of a chemical reaction. In some cases, a
toxic substance could form as a drug degrades . This could include penicillin
being exposed to acidic pH conditions causing it to rearrange into penicillenic
acid which is a suspected cause of allergic reactions to penicillin (Yoshioka and
Stella, 2007).

 

 

SPECTROSCOPY?

 

CONCENTRATION AND PH CALCULATIONS

a)     

b)    H3O+ = 10?pH

                              = 10-4.00

                              =  

c)      

 

RATES OF REACTION

The independent variable is time (sec) and the dependent variable
is the concentration of OH- mol dm-3.