1. care from publicly provided facilities. Countries

1.
Introduction

Health
care is a core component of human capital investment, which in turn rising its
spending also raises quality of life, prolonged life expectancy, reducing
morbidity and mortality rates (Byaro and Musonda, 2016). On other
hand, health outcomes symbolize how healthy a country is and assesses the
quality of health care of the country. Thus, infant mortality, under-5
mortality and life expectancy are known to be the most important indicators for
early childhood development and health status of the people of a country (Byaro
and Musonda, 2016). Similarly, Health expenditure consists of all
expenditures or outlays for medical care, prevention, promotion,
rehabilitation, community health activities, health administration and
regulation and capital formation with the predominant objective of improving
health of the people(Deluna and Faith, 2014), Public expenditure
for health care is important for improving health outcomes especially for the
poor as the poor are more likely to obtain health care from publicly provided
facilities. Countries with high level of public health spending have secured
better health outcomes compared to countries with low level of public health
spending. This means that, the size of the public fund in health sector matters
for better health outcomes (Byaro and Musonda, 2016).”Health is
indeed closely intertwined with economic growth and sustainable development.
There is evidence that investing in health brings substantial benefits for the
economy”. According to the WHO (2001) increasing life expectancy
at birth by 10 per cent will increase the economic growth rate by 0.35 per cent
a year. Health and economic matters are intimately linked in a number of ways.

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First,
health is an important contributor to people’s ability to be productive and to
accumulate the knowledge and skills they need to be productive. Second, health
status is also a major determinant of one’s enrollment in and success in
school, which itself is an important contributor to future earnings. Third, the
costs of health care are also extremely important to individuals, especially to
poor people, because large out of pocket expenditures can have a major impact
on their financial status and can push them to poverty. Fourth, the costs of
health care are also very important to countries, because health is a major
item of national expenditure of all countries. Finally, the approach that
different countries take to the financing and carrying out of health services
raises important issues of equity (Deluna and Faith, 2014). WHO
defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, it moves beyond a focus on
individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions.

 Another major initiative for improved global
health is the United Nations Millennium Declaration. It was agreed to in 2000
by 189 countries including Nigeria and India, exemplifying an unprecedented
commitment on the part of both rich and poor countries to attain improvements
in human development by the year 2015. This commitment is summarized in the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that set targets in areas of poverty
reduction, health improvements, education attainment, gender equality,
environmental sustainability, and fostering global partnerships (UNDP 2003).
These movements are formed for the betterment of health outcomes.

2. Background of
the Study

Health is fundamental to enhancing the quality ofhuman life and
ensuring the socio economic progress of a
country. In essence, without good health, a person cannot achieve anything
meaningful in life. For instance, a person’s
ability to learn and achieve a good form of education depends on the person’s
health status, either in good or poor health, as this is an important factor in
determining the person’s to cope in learning environment. Additionally, a
healthy population provides an active work force for a nation, with a higher
productivity, savings, and investment. Schultz (1999) and Barro (1996)further argue that better health can reduce the
depreciation of education capital and thus increase the favorable effect of education on growth. According to World Health
Organization (WHO) health is the physical, mental and social
well-being of an individual and not mere absence
of disease or infirmity. This underscores the importance of health to a person
and to the nation as a whole in the development process. Prominent among such
policies are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in which during the United Nations (UN) Millennium summit, the
developing countries and poor nations pledge
to govern better and invest in their people through healthcare and education. The more advance countries also pledge to support them
through aid; debt relief and fairer trade options.  The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) consists eight
goals and that is to be achieved by the year
2000, by 189 countriesexemplifying an
unprecedented commitment on the path of rich and poor countries to attain improvement in human development by year 2015, with
three of the eight goals focusing on improving health to reducing child and
maternal mortality and incidence of HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, and other
preventable diseases, (Bakari and Dauda, 2009).

 

Similarly, in 2015 the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDG’s) were in place as an offshoot of the MDG’s, with 17 universal
goals, 168 targets, and 230 indicators set by the United Nations to guide a
range of pressing problems including food and water security, poverty, and
climate change up to 2030. Health is at the core of the SDG’s with the third
SDG’s aiming to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all
age”,this focus on Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development
Goals have led to critical debate especially on several health related issues.Much of the literature seems to suggest that one means of
achieving improved health outcomes in a nations/region is through the provision
of quality health care services, which requires increased health spending.

In most developing
countries, and specifically in Sub-Saharan African and Asian region,
governments mainly provide health care services. Government spending on health
is also justified in its impact on the individual’s lifetime income, through the
person’s ability to